The reasons why prices have skyrocketed are several. On the one hand, hydroelectric generation has not been high, although wind has been maintained, and some nuclear has been stopped. Since these are the cheapest energies, they have not been able to push prices down. On the contrary, natural gas power plants, whose electricity production is the most expensive in the wholesale market, have worked more. But, interestingly, it is the rise in CO2 emission rights that has had the greatest impact on the wholesale market. According to the analysts of the ASE group, this increase means an additional five euros in the price per June 2019 Calendar USA. In the last year, the price of CO2 has tripled and has exceeded 20 euros per ton.
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The ASE group explains that the increase in CO2 emission rights has increased the costs of electricity production via coal and gas, which has a direct effect on the price of electricity because the price of the wholesale market, which has a Marginalist pricing system in which the offers come in order from the cheapest to the most expensive, is indexed to gas matching offers.
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Currently, only when wind energy achieves a significant volume, as in November, is it able to neutralize this effect. In 2019, Renfe will keep the price of the Cercanías ticket frozen for the fourth consecutive year, but it will increase by 3.5% on the of the trains of Average Distance and 7% the one of the Avant, the regional ones that circulate by the routes of the AVE, according to informed the operator.
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In the case of these two types of train, their rates rise after having also been frozen in the last three years, between 2016 and 2018. The last increase of all these services was the 1.85% applied in 2015.
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However, despite the increase in the single and round trip tickets of Media Distancia and Avant, Renfe will keep frozen the ‘multi-flight vouchers’ that it sells for this type of trains in order to “favor recurring travelers”.
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As for AVE and Long Distance trains, the price of the ticket will not rise with the change of the year, as indicated by Renfe sources, although the operator could change it later in the year, as has happened on other occasions.
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Renfe explained that the new tariffs for the Cercanías, Media Distancia and Avant do not affect the Rodalies and the regional ones of Catalonia, where the prices of the tickets are determined by the Generalitat because the service is transferred.
The coal and natural gas thermal power plants have an economic penalty due to their carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Therefore, the electric companies that own these plants must buy rights (bonds) to emit that June 2019 Calendar USA in a European market that functions as a stock exchange and was designed with the purpose of discouraging the use of fossil fuels in the electricity sector and in the industry as a whole.